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India, officially known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.[1][2][3] It is the seventh-largest country by land area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. India shares its borders with Pakistan to the northwest, China and Nepal to the north, Bhutan to the northeast, and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east.[4][5][6] To the south, it is bounded by the Indian Ocean.[7][8][9][10]


The name "India" is derived from the river Indus, which flows through the northwestern part of the country. The term has been in use since ancient times, appearing in various ancient texts such as the Rigveda. The Greek historian Herodotus used the term "Indoi" to refer to the people of the region.


India has a rich and diverse history that spans thousands of years. It has been home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished around 2500 BCE. Over the centuries, India has been ruled by various dynasties and empires, including the Maurya, Gupta, Mughal, and British Empires.


India is geographically diverse, with the Himalayas to the north, the Thar Desert to the west, and the Indian Ocean to the south. It has a varied climate, ranging from tropical in the south to temperate in the north. The country is divided into 28 states and 8 union territories.


India has a mixed economy, with agriculture, manufacturing, and services sectors contributing to its GDP. It is one of the world's fastest-growing major economies and is classified as a newly industrialized country. India is known for its information technology and software services industry, as well as its booming consumer market.


Indian culture is renowned for its diversity, with hundreds of languages, religions, and cultural practices coexisting harmoniously. The country is known for its rich traditions in music, dance, art, and literature. Indian cuisine is also highly varied, with each region boasting its unique flavors and dishes.


India is a federal parliamentary democratic republic, with a president serving as the head of state and a prime minister as the head of government. The country has a multi-tiered system of government, with power divided between the central government and the state governments.


India is a popular tourist destination, known for its stunning landscapes, rich history, and vibrant culture. Major attractions include the Taj Mahal, Jaipur's Pink City, Kerala's backwaters, and the beaches of Goa. The country also offers a wide range of adventure activities, including trekking in the Himalayas and wildlife safaris in national parks.