Category:Vietnamese people

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{{#invoke:infobox|infoboxTemplate | bodyclass = vcard

| titleclass = fn org | title = Vietnamese people (người Việt)
Kinh people (người Kinh)

| aboveclass = nickname | abovestyle = font-size:115%; font-weight:normal; | above =

| image1 = {{#invoke:InfoboxImage|InfoboxImage |upright=|image=|alt=|border=yes}} | caption1 =

| image2 = {{#invoke:InfoboxImage|InfoboxImage |upright=|alt=|image=Ao dai APEC.jpg }} | caption2 = Vietnamese women wearing a traditional áo dài folk dress

| headerstyle = background-color:#b0c4de; | labelstyle = font-weight:normal;

| header1 = Total population

| data2 = c.{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Circa with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | i | lk | sortable }} 89 million

| label3 = | data3 = | label4 = | data4 = | label5 = | data5 =

| header6 = Regions with significant populations | data7 = | header8 = | data9 =

| label11 = Template:Country data Vietnam | data11 = 82,085,826 (2019)[1] | label12 = 23x15px United States | data12 = 2,162,610 (2018)[2] | label13 = Template:Country data Cambodia | data13 = 400,000–1,000,000[3][4][5] | label14 = Template:Country data Japan | data14 = 450,046[6]3000px | label15 = Template:Country data France | data15 = ~400,000[7][8] | label16 = Template:Country data Australia | data16 = 294,798 (2016)[9] | label17 = Template:Country data Taiwan | data17 = 243,734 (2021)[note 1][10] | label18 = Template:Country data Canada | data18 = 240,514[11] | label19 = Template:Country data South Korea | data19 = 224,518 (2020)[12] | label20 = Template:Country data Germany | data20 = 188,000 (2019)[13] | label21 = Template:Country data Russia | data21 = 13,954[14]–150,000[15] | label22 = Template:Country data Laos | data22 = 122,000[16] | label23 = Template:Country data Thailand | data23 = 100,000[17]–500,000[18] | label24 = Template:Country data Czech Republic | data24 = 60,000[19]–200,000[20] | label25 = Template:Country data Malaysia | data25 = 80,000[21] | label26 = Template:Country data Poland | data26 = 25,000–60,000[22][23] | label27 = 23x15px United Kingdom | data27 = 50,000–100,000[24] | label28 = Template:Country data Angola | data28 = 45,000[25] | label29 = Template:Country data Ukraine | data29 = 10,000[26]–50,000[27] | label30 = Template:Country data Mainland China | data30 = 36,205 (2010)[note 2][28] - 303,000 (2020)[29] /33,112 (2020)[30][note 3] | label31 = Template:Country data Philippines | data31 = 27,600[citation needed] | label32 = Template:Country data Norway | data32 = 27,366 (2020)[31] | label33 = Template:Country data Netherlands | data33 = 23,488 (2019)[32]3000px | label34 = Template:Country data Sweden | data34 = 20,676 (2020)[33] | label35 = Template:Country data Macau | data35 = ~20,000 (2018)[34] | label36 = Template:Country data United Arab Emirates | data36 = 20,000[35] | label37 = 23x15px Saudi Arabia | data37 = 20,000[36][37][38] | label38 = Template:Country data Denmark | data38 = 15,953 (2020)[39] | label39 = Template:Country data Belgium | data39 = 12,000-15,000[40][41] | label40 = Template:Country data Finland | data40 = 12,051[42] | label41 = Template:Country data Singapore | data41 = 15,000[43] | label42 = Template:Country data Cyprus | data42 = ~12,000[44][45] | label43 = Template:Country data Slovakia | data43 = 5,565[46]–20,000[47] | label44 = Template:Country data New Zealand | data44 = 10,086 (2018)[48] | label45 = Template:Country data Switzerland | data45 = ~8,000[49] | label46 = Template:Country data Hungary | data46 = 7,304 (2016)[50] | label47 = Template:Country data Italy | data47 = 5,000[51] | label48 = Template:Country data Austria | data48 = 5,000[52] | label49 = Template:Country data Romania | data49 = 3,000[53] | label50 = Template:Country data Bulgaria | data50 = 2,500[54] | label51 = | data51 = | label52 = | data52 = | label53 = | data53 = | label54 = | data54 = | label55 = | data55 = | label56 = | data56 = | label57 = | data57 = | label58 = | data58 = | label59 = | data59 = | label60 = | data60 = | header61 = Languages | data62 = Vietnamese | header63 = Religion | data64 = Predominantly Vietnamese folk religion syncretized with Mahayana Buddhism. Minorities of Christians (mostly Roman Catholics) and other groups.[55] | header65 = Related ethnic groups | data66 = Other Vietic ethnic groups
(Gin, Muong, Chứt, Thổ peoples)

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}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Infobox ethnic group with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y | caption | flag |flag_alt | flag_border | flag_caption | flag_upright | footnotes | genealogy | group | image |image_alt | image_caption | image_upright | langs | languages | native_name | native_name_lang | pop | pop_embed | pop1 | pop10 | pop11 | pop12 | pop13 | pop14 | pop15 | pop16 | pop17 | pop18 | pop19 | pop2 | pop20 | pop21 | pop22 | pop23 | pop24 | pop25 | pop26 | pop27 | pop28 | pop29 | pop3 | pop30 | pop31 | pop32 | pop33 | pop34 | pop35 | pop36 | pop37 | pop38 | pop39 | pop4 | pop40 | pop41 | pop42 | pop43 | pop44 | pop45 | pop46 | pop47 | pop48 | pop49 | pop5 | pop50 | pop6 | pop7 | pop8 | pop9 | popplace | population | rawimage | ref1 | ref10 | ref11 | ref12 | ref13 | ref14 | ref15 | ref16 | ref17 | ref18 | ref19 | ref2 | ref20 | ref21 | ref22 | ref23 | ref24 | ref25 | ref26 | ref27 | ref28 | ref29 | ref3 | ref30 | ref31 | ref32 | ref33 | ref34 | ref35 | ref36 | ref37 | ref38 | ref39 | ref4 | ref40 | ref41 | ref42 | ref43 | ref44 | ref45 | ref46 | ref47 | ref48 | ref49 | ref5 | ref50 | ref6 | ref7 | ref8 | ref9 | region1 | region10 | region11 | region12 | region13 | region14 | region15 | region16 | region17 | region18 | region19 | region2 | region20 | region21 | region22 | region23 | region24 | region25 | region26 | region27 | region28 | region29 | region3 | region30 | region31 | region32 | region33 | region34 | region35 | region36 | region37 | region38 | region39 | region4 | region40 | region41 | region42 | region43 | region44 | region45 | region46 | region47 | region48 | region49 | region5 | region50 | region6 | region7 | region8 | region9 | regions | related | related_groups | related-c | religions | rels | tablehdr | total | total_ref | total_source | total_year | total1 | total1_ref | total1_source | total1_year | total2 | total2_ref | total2_source | total2_year | total3 | total3_ref | total3_source | total3_year }} Template:Contains special characters

The Vietnamese people (Template:Lang-vi) or Kinh people (Template:Lang-vi) are a Southeast Asian ethnic group originally native to modern-day Northern Vietnam and Southern China. The native language is Vietnamese, the most widely spoken Austroasiatic language. Its vocabulary was influenced by Chinese early on. During the French colonial era, French was an official language in Vietnam. Afterwards, the Vietnamese language codified in the Latin alphabet emerged.

Vietnamese Kinh people account for just over 85.32% of the population of Vietnam in the 2019 census, and are officially known as Kinh people (người Kinh) to distinguish them from the other minority groups residing in the country such as the Hmong, Cham or Muong. The Vietnamese are one of the four main groups of Vietic speakers in Vietnam, the others being the Muong, Thổ and Chứt people. They are related to the Gin or the Jing people, a Vietnamese ethnic group in China.

Terminology

Việt

The term "Template:Linktext" (Yue) (Template:CJKV) in Early Middle Chinese was first written using the logograph "戉" for an axe (a homophone), in oracle bone and bronze inscriptions of the late Shang dynasty (c. 1200{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Circa with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | i | lk | sortable }} BC), and later as "越".[56] At that time it referred to a people or chieftain to the northwest of the Shang.[57] In the early 8th century BC, a tribe on the middle Yangtze were called the Yangyue, a term later used for peoples further south.[57] Between the 7th and 4th centuries BC Yue/Việt referred to the State of Yue in the lower Yangtze basin and its people.[56][57] From the 3rd century BC the term was used for the non-Chinese populations of south and southwest China and northern Vietnam, with particular ethnic groups called Minyue, Ouyue (Vietnamese: Âu Việt), Luoyue (Vietnamese: Lạc Việt), etc., collectively called the Baiyue (Bách Việt, Template:CJKV; ).[56][57] The term Baiyue/Bách Việt first appeared in the book Lüshi Chunqiu compiled around 239 BC.[58] By the 17th and 18th centuries AD, educated Vietnamese apparently referred to themselves as người Việt 𠊛越 (Viet people) or người Nam 𠊛南 (southern people).{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}

Kinh

Beginning in the 10th and 11th centuries, a strand of Proto-Viet-Muong with influence from Annamese Middle Chinese started to become what is now the Vietnamese language.[59]{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}[60] Its speakers called themselves the "Kinh" people, meaning people of the "metropolitan" centered around the Red River Delta with Hanoi as its capital. Historic and modern Chữ Nôm scripture classically uses the Han character '京', pronounced "Jīng" in Mandarin, and "Kinh" with Sino-Vietnamese pronunciation. Other variants of Proto-Viet-Muong were driven to the lowlands by the Kinh and were called Trại (寨 Mandarin: Zhài), or "outpost" people," by the 13th century. These became the modern Muong people.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} According to Victor Lieberman, người Kinh (Chữ Nôm: 𠊛京) may be a colonial-era term for Vietnamese speakers inserted anachronistically into translations of pre-colonial documents, but literature on 18th century ethnic formation is lacking.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}

File:Ethnolinguistic map of Indochina 1970.jpg
Ethnolinguistic map of Indochina, 1970. Vietnamese (Kinh) = Green

History

Origins and pre-history

The forerunners of the ethnic Vietnamese were Proto-Vietic people who descended from Proto-Austroasiatic people who may have originated from somewhere in Southern China, Yunnan, the Lingnan, or the Yangtze River, together with the Monic, who settled further to the west and the Khmeric migrated further south. Most archaeologists and linguists, and other specialists like Sinologists and crop experts, believe that they arrived no later than 2000 BC bringing with them the practice of riverine agriculture and in particular the cultivation of wet rice.[61][62][63][64][65] Some linguists (James Chamberlain, Joachim Schliesinger) suggested that the Vietic-speaking people migrated from North Central Region to the Red River Delta, which had originally been inhabited by Tai-speakers.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} However, Michael Churchman found no records of population shifts in Jiaozhi (centered around the Red River Delta) in Chinese sources, indicating that a fairly stable population of Austroasiatic speakers, ancestral to modern Vietnamese, inhabited in the delta during the Han-Tang periods.Template:Sfnp Other proposes that Northern Vietnam and Southern China were never homogeneous in term of ethnicity and languages, but peoples shared some customs. These ancient tribes did not have any kind of defined ethnic boundary and could not be described as "Vietnamese" (Kinh) in any satisfactory sense.Template:Sfnp Any attempt of identify an ethnic group in ancient Vietnam is problematized inaccurate.Template:Sfnp

Another theory, based on linguistic diversity, locates the most probable homeland of the Vietic languages in modern-day Bolikhamsai Province and Khammouane Province in Laos as well as parts of Nghệ An Province and Quảng Bình Province in Vietnam. In the 1930s, clusters of Vietic-speaking communities were discovered in the hills of eastern Laos, are believed to be the earliest inhabitants of that region.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} Archaeogenetics demonstrated that before the Dong Son period, the Red River Delta's inhabitants were predominantly Austroasiatic: genetic data from Phùng Nguyên culture's Mán Bạc burial site (dated 1,800 BC) have close proximity to modern Austroasiatic speakers;[66][67] meanwhile, "mixed genetics" from Đông Sơn culture's Núi Nấp site showed affinity to "Dai from China, Tai-Kadai speakers from Thailand, and Austroasiatic speakers from Vietnam, including the Kinh".[68]

According to Vietnamese legend The Tale the Hồng Bàng Clan written in the 15th century, the first Vietnamese descended from the dragon lord Lạc Long Quân and the fairy Âu Cơ. They married and had one hundred eggs, from which hatched one hundred children. Their eldest son ruled as the Hùng king.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} The Hùng kings were claimed to be descended from the mythical figure Shen Nong.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}
File:Dong Son drums.jpg
Motif of the Dongson Ngoc Lu drum (~300 BC)

Early history and Chinese rule

File:World 500 BCE showing Van Lang.png
Proposed location of the Văn Lang polity in 500 BC

Template:Pie chart The earliest reference of the proto-Vietnamese in Chinese annals was the Lạc (Chinese: Luo), Lạc Việt, or the Dongsonian,{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} an ancient tribal confederacy of perhaps polyglot Austroasiatic and Kra-Dai speakers occupied the Red River Delta.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}[69] The Lạc developed the metallurgical Dong Son Culture and the Văn Lang chiefdom, ruled by the semi-mythical Hùng kings.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} To the south of the Dongsonians was the Sa Huynh Culture of the Austronesian Chamic people.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} Around 400–200 BC, the Lạc came to contact with the Âu Việt (a splinter group of Tai people) and the Sinitic people from the north.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} According to a late third or early fourth century AD Chinese chronicle, the leader of the Âu Việt, Thục Phán, conquered Văn Lang and deposed the last Hùng king.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} Having submissions of Lạc lords, Thục Phán proclaimed himself King An Dương of Âu Lạc kingdom.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}

In 179 BC, Zhao Tuo, a Chinese general who has established the Nanyue state in modern-day Southern China, annexed Âu Lạc, and began the Sino-Vietic interaction that lasted in a millennium.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} In 111 BC, the Han Empire conquered Nanyue, brought the Northern Vietnam region under Han rule.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}

By the 7th century to 9th century AD, as the Tang Empire ruled over the region, historians such as Henri Maspero proposed that Vietnamese-speaking people became separated from other Vietic groups such as the Muong and Chut due to heavier Chinese influences on the Vietnamese.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} Other argue that a Vietic migration from north central Vietnam to the Red River Delta in the seventh century replaced the original Tai-speaking inhabitants.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} In the mid-9th century, local rebels aided by Nanzhao tore the Tang Chinese rule to nearly collapse.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} The Tang reconquered the region in 866, causing half of the local rebels to flee into the mountains, which historians believe that was the separation between the Muong and the Vietnamese took at the end of Tang rule in Vietnam.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} In 938, the Vietnamese leader Ngo Quyen who was a native of Thanh Hoa, led Viet forces defeated the Chinese Southern Han armada at Bạch Đằng River and proclaimed himself king, became the first Vietnamese king of polity that now could be perceived as "Vietnamese".{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}

Medieval and early modern period

Ngo Quyen died in 944 and his kingdom collapsed into chaos and disturbances between twelve warlords and chiefs.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} In 968, a leader named Đinh Bộ Lĩnh united them and established the Đại Việt (Great Việt) kingdom.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} With assistance of powerful Buddhist monks, Đinh Bộ Lĩnh chose Hoa Lư in the southern edge of the Red River Delta as the capital instead of Tang-era Dai La, adopted Chinese-style imperial titles, coinage, and ceremonies and tried to preserve the Chinese administrative framework.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} The independence of Dai Viet, according to Andrew Chittick, allows it "to develop its own distinctive political culture and ethnic consciousness."[70] In 979 Dinh Bo Linh was assassinated, and Queen Duong Van Nga married with Dinh's general Le Hoan, appointed him as king. Disturbances in Dai Viet attracted attentions from neighbouring Chinese Song dynasty and Champa Kingdom, but they were defeated by Le Hoan.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} A Khmer inscription dated 987 records the arrival of Vietnamese merchants (Yuon) in Angkor.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} Chinese writers, Song Hao, Fan Chengda and Zhou Qufei, both reported that the inhabitants of Dai Viet "tattooed their foreheads, crossed feet, black teeth, bare feet and blacken clothing."{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} The early 11th century Cham inscription of Chiên Đàn, My Son, erected by a Indrapura king named Harivarman, mentions that he had offered Khmer (Kmīra/Kmir) and Viet (Yvan) prisoners as slaves to various local gods and temples of the citadel of Tralauṅ Svon.[71]

Successive Vietnamese royal families from the Đinh, Lê, Lý dynasties and (Hoa)/Chinese ancestry Trần and Hồ dynasties ruled the kingdom peacefully from 968 to 1407. Emperor Lý Thái Tổ (r. 1009–1028) relocated the Vietnamese capital from Hoa Lư to Hanoi, the center of the Red River Delta in 1010.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} They practiced elitist marriage alliances between clans and nobles in the country. Mahayana Buddhism became state religion, Vietnamese music instruments, dancing and religious worshipping were influenced by both Cham, Indian and Chinese styles,{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} while Confucianism slowly gained attention and influence.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} The earliest surviving corpus and text in Vietnamese language dated early 12th century, and surviving chữ nôm script inscriptions dated early 13th century.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}

One of the earliest Vietnamese that migrated to Korea during this time was Lý Dương Côn (李陽焜), an adopted son of Emperor Lý Nhân Tông; following a succession crisis, he fled to Goryeo (918-1392 Korean Dynasty). He is known in modern-day Korea as a Vietnamese member of the Jeongseon-gun, Gangwon-do bon-gwan of the Lee family.[72] Later, a Vietnamese prince of the Lý Dynasty, Lý Long Tường (the seventh son of emperor Lý Anh Tông) and his crew of several thousand mandarins and servants escaped to Korea via Taiwan after hearing that the Lý Dynasty would be overthrown by the Trần Dynasty. Lý Long Tường and his crew sought refuge in the Goryeo Kingdom in 1226.

The Mongol Yuan dynasty unsuccessful invaded Dai Viet in the 1250s and 1280s, though they sacked Hanoi.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} The Ming dynasty of China conquered Dai Viet in 1406, brought the Vietnamese under Chinese rule for 20 years, before they were driven out by Vietnamese leader Lê Lợi.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} During the 15th century, Dai Viet's population skyrocketed from 1.9 million to 4.4 million.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} The fourth grandson of Lê Lợi, Emperor Lê Thánh Tông (r. 1460–1497), is considered one of the greatest monarchs in Vietnamese history. His reign is recognized for the extensive administrative, military, education, and fiscal reforms he instituted, and a cultural revolution that replaced the old traditional aristocracy with a generation of literati scholars, adopted Confucianism, and transformed a Dai Viet from a Southeast Asian style polity to a bureaucratic state, and flourished. Thánh Tông's forces, armed with gunpowder, overwhelmed the long-term rival Champa in 1471, occupied the Laotian and Lan Na kingdoms in the 1480s.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}

16th century – Modern period

File:Quanlai.jpg
Vietnamese noble, 1883-1886
File:Viet1919.jpg
Vietnamese farmers in 1921

With the death of Thánh Tông in 1497, the Dai Viet kingdom swiftly declined. Climate extremes, failing crops, regionalism and factionism tore the Vietnamese apart.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} From 1533 to 1790s, four powerful Vietnamese families: Mạc, Lê, Trịnh and Nguyễn, each ruled on their own domains. In northern Vietnam (Dang Ngoai–outer realm), the Lê Emperors barely sat on the throne while the Trịnh lords held power of the court. The Mạc controlled northeast Vietnam. The Nguyễn lords ruled the southern polity of Dang Trong (inner realm).{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} Thousands of ethnic Vietnamese migrated south, settled on the old Cham lands.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} European missionaries and traders from the sixteenth century brought new religion, ideas and crops to the Vietnamese (Annamese). By 1639, there were 82,500 Catholic converts throughout Vietnam. In 1651, Alexandre de Rhodes published a 300-pages catechism in Latin and romanized-Vietnamese (chu quoc ngu) or the Vietnamese alphabet.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}

The Vietnamese Fragmentation period ended in 1802 as Emperor Gia Long, who was aided by French, Siamese,... defeated the Tay Son regime and reunited Vietnam. Through assimilation and brutal subjugation in the 1830s by Minh Mang, a large chunk of indigenous Cham had been assimilated into Vietnamese. By 1847, the Vietnamese state under Emperor Thieu Tri, people that identified them as "Vietnamese" accounted for nearly 80 percent of the country's population (6.3 million people out of 8 million), while rest were Chams, Chinese, and Khmers.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} This demographic model continues to persist through the French Indochina, Japanese occupation and modern day.

Between 1862 and 1867, the southern third of the country became the French colony of Cochinchina.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} By 1884, the entire country had come under French rule, with the central and northern parts of Vietnam separated into the two protectorates of Annam and Tonkin. The three Vietnamese entities were formally integrated into the union of French Indochina in 1887.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} The French administration imposed significant political and cultural changes on Vietnamese society.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} A Western-style system of modern education introduced new humanist values into Vietnam.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}

The French developed a plantation economy to promote the export of tobacco, indigo, tea and coffee.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} However, they largely ignored the increasing demands for civil rights and self-government. A nationalist political movement soon emerged, with leaders like Phan Bội Châu, Phan Châu Trinh, Phan Đình Phùng, Emperor Hàm Nghi, and Hồ Chí Minh fighting or calling for independence.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} This resulted in the 1930 Yên Bái mutiny by the Vietnamese Nationalist Party (VNQDĐ), which the French quashed. The mutiny caused an irreparable split in the independence movement that resulted in many leading members of the organisation becoming communist converts.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}

The French maintained full control over their colonies until World War II, when the war in the Pacific led to the Japanese invasion of French Indochina in 1940. Afterwards, the Japanese Empire was allowed to station its troops in Vietnam while permitting the pro-Vichy French colonial administration to continue.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} Japan exploited Vietnam's natural resources to support its military campaigns, culminating in a full-scale takeover of the country in March 1945. This led to the Vietnamese Famine of 1945, which resulted in up to two million deaths.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}

In 1941, the Việt Minh, a nationalist liberation movement based on a Communist Ideology, led by Hồ Chí Minh. The Việt Minh sought independence for Vietnam from France and the end of the Japanese occupation.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} Following the military defeat of Japan and the fall of its puppet Empire of Vietnam in August 1945, anarchy, rioting, and murder were widespread, as Saigon's administrative services had collapsed.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} The Việt Minh occupied Hanoi and proclaimed a provisional government, which asserted national independence on 2 September.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}

But as the French were weakened by the German occupation, British-Indian forces and the remaining Japanese Southern Expeditionary Army Group were used to maintain order and to help France reestablish control through the 1945–1946 War in Vietnam.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} Hồ initially chose to take a moderate stance to avoid military conflict with France, asking the French to withdraw their colonial administrators and for French professors and engineers to help build a modern independent Vietnam.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} But the Provisional Government of the French Republic did not act on these requests, including the idea of independence, and dispatched the French Far East Expeditionary Corps to restore colonial rule. This resulted in the Việt Minh launching a guerrilla campaign against the French in late 1946.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} The resulting First Indochina War lasted until July 1954. The defeat of French colonialists and Vietnamese loyalists in the 1954 battle of Điện Biên Phủ allowed Hồ to negotiate a ceasefire from a favourable position at the subsequent Geneva Conference.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}

The colonial administration was thereby ended and French Indochina was dissolved under the Geneva Accords of 1954. Vietnam was further divided into North and South administrative regions at the Demilitarised Zone, roughly along the 17th parallel north, pending elections scheduled for July 1956.[n 1] A 300-day period of free movement was permitted, during which almost a million northerners, mainly Catholics, moved south, fearing persecution by the communists. This migration was in large part aided by the United States military through Operation Passage to Freedom.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} The partition of Vietnam by the Geneva Accords was not intended to be permanent, and stipulated that Vietnam would be reunited after the elections.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} But in 1955, the southern State of Vietnam's prime minister, Ngô Đình Diệm, toppled Bảo Đại in a fraudulent referendum organised by his brother Ngô Đình Nhu, and proclaimed himself president of the Republic of Vietnam.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} At that point the internationally recognised State of Vietnam effectively ceased to exist and was replaced by the Republic of Vietnam in the south—supported by the United States, France, Laos, Republic of China and Thailand—and Hồ's Democratic Republic of Vietnam in the north, supported by the Soviet Union, Sweden,[73] Khmer Rouge, and the People's Republic of China.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}

On 2 July 1976, North and South Vietnam were merged to form the Socialist Republic of Việt Nam.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} The war left Vietnam devastated, with the total death toll between 966,000 and 3.8 million.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} In its aftermath, under Lê Duẩn's administration, there were no mass executions of South Vietnamese who had collaborated with the US or the defunct South Vietnamese government, confounding Western fears,{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} but up to 300,000 South Vietnamese were sent to reeducation camps, where many endured torture, starvation, and disease while being forced to perform hard labour.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} The government embarked on a mass campaign of collectivisation of farms and factories.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}

At the Sixth National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) in December 1986, reformist politicians replaced the "old guard" government with new leadership.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} The reformers were led by 71-year-old Nguyễn Văn Linh, who became the party's new general secretary.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} He and the reformers implemented a series of free-market reforms known as Đổi Mới ("Renovation") that carefully managed the transition from a planned economy to a "socialist-oriented market economy".{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} Though the authority of the state remained unchallenged under Đổi Mới, the government encouraged private ownership of farms and factories, economic deregulation, and foreign investment, while maintaining control over strategic industries.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} The Vietnamese economy subsequently achieved strong growth in agricultural and industrial production, construction, exports, and foreign investment, although these reforms also caused a rise in income inequality and gender disparities.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}

Religions

According to the 2019 Census, the religious demographics of Vietnam are as follows:[1]

It is worth noting here that the data is highly skewered, as a large majority of Vietnamese may declare themselves atheist, yet practice forms of traditional folk religion or Mahayana Buddhism.[74]

Estimates for the year 2010 published by the Pew Research Center:[75]

  • Vietnamese folk religion, 45.3%
  • Unaffiliated, 29.6%
  • Buddhism, 16.4%
  • Christianity, 8.2%
  • Other, 0.5%

Diaspora

File:Vietnamnese Abroad.svg
Map of the Vietnamnese

Originally from northern Vietnam and southern China, the Vietnamese have conquered much of the land belonging to the former Champa Kingdom and Khmer Empire over the centuries. They are the dominant ethnic group in most provinces of Vietnam, and constitute a small percentage of the population in neighbouring Cambodia.

Beginning around the sixteenth century, groups of Vietnamese migrated to Cambodia and China for commerce and political purposes. Descendants of Vietnamese migrants in China form the Gin ethnic group in the country and primarily reside in and around Guangxi Province. Vietnamese form the largest ethnic minority group in Cambodia, at 5% of the population.[76] Under the Khmer Rouge, they were heavily persecuted and survivors of the regime largely fled to Vietnam.

During French colonialism, Vietnam was regarded as the most important colony in Asia by the French colonial powers, and the Vietnamese had a higher social standing than other ethnic groups in French Indochina.[77] As a result, educated Vietnamese were often trained to be placed in colonial government positions in the other Asian French colonies of Laos and Cambodia rather than locals of the respective colonies. There was also a significant representation of Vietnamese students in France during this period, primarily consisting of members of the elite class. A large number of Vietnamese also migrated to France as workers, especially during World War I and World War II, when France recruited soldiers and locals of its colonies to help with war efforts in Metropolitan France. The wave of migrants to France during World War I formed the first major presence of Vietnamese people in France and the Western world.[78]

When Vietnam gained its independence from France in 1954, a number of Vietnamese loyal to the colonial government also migrated to France. During the partition of Vietnam into North and South, a number of South Vietnamese students also arrived to study in France, along with individuals involved in commerce for trade with France, which was a principal economic partner with South Vietnam.[78]

Forced repatriation in 1970 and deaths during the Khmer Rouge era reduced the Vietnamese population in Cambodia from between 250,000 and 300,000 in 1969 to a reported 56,000 in 1984.[79]

The Fall of Saigon and end of the Vietnam War prompted the start of the Vietnamese diaspora, which saw millions of Vietnamese fleeing the country from the new communist regime. Recognizing an international humanitarian crisis, many countries accepted Vietnamese refugees, primarily the United States, France, Australia and Canada.[80] Meanwhile, under the new communist regime, tens of thousands of Vietnamese were sent to work or study in Eastern Bloc countries of Central and Eastern Europe as development aid to the Vietnamese government and for migrants to acquire skills that were to be brought home to help with development.[81] However, after the fall of the Berlin Wall, a vast majority of these overseas Vietnamese decided to remain in their host nations.[citation needed]

See also

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Notes

  1. Neither the American government nor Ngô Đình Diệm's State of Vietnam signed anything at the 1954 Geneva Conference. The non-communist Vietnamese delegation objected strenuously to any division of Vietnam; however, the French accepted the Việt Minh proposal{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} that Vietnam be united by elections under the supervision of "local commissions".{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} The United States, with the support of South Vietnam and the United Kingdom, countered with the "American Plan",{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} which provided for United Nations-supervised unification elections. The plan, however, was rejected by Soviet and other communist delegations.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }}

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