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People's Republic of Bangladesh
  • গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ  (language?)
  • Gônoprojatontrī Bangladesh
Flag of Bangladesh Emblem of Bangladesh
Flag Emblem
Anthem: Template:Native phrase
"My Golden Bengal"
March: "Notuner Gaan"
"The Song of Youth"[1]
National Slogan: "Joy Bangla"
"Victory to Bengal"[2][3]
Official Seal of the Government of Bangladesh
and largest city
Official language
and national language
Ethnic groups (2011[5]) Template:Vunblist
Religion Template:Ublist
Demonym Bangladeshi
Government Unitary
dominant-party parliamentary
constitutional republic
 •  President Abdul Hamid
 •  Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina
 •  House Speaker Shirin Sharmin Chaudhury
 •  Chief Justice Syed Mahmud Hossain
Legislature Jatiya Sangsad
 •  Declared 26 March 1971 
 •  V-Day 16 December 1971 
 •  Current constitution 16 December 1972 
 •  Total 148,560[6] km2 (92nd)
57,359.34 sq mi
 •  Water (%) 6.4
 •  Land area 130,170 sq Km[7]
 •  Water area 18,290 sq km[7]
 •  Template:UN Population estimate Template:IncreaseNeutralTemplate:UN PopulationTemplate:UN Population (8th)
 •  2011 census 149,772,364[8] (8th)
 •  Density 1,106/km2 (7th)
2,864.5/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2021 estimate
 •  Total Increase $966.485 billion[9] (31st)
 •  Per capita Increase $5,812[9] (130th)
GDP (nominal) 2021 estimate
 •  Total Increase $352.908 billion[9] (37th)
 •  Per capita Increase $2,122[9] (149th)
Gini (2018)Template:IncreaseNegative 39.5[10]
HDI (2019)Increase 0.632[11]
Template:Color · 133rd
Currency Taka () (BDT)
Time zone BST (UTC+6)
Date format dd-mm-yyyy CE
Drives on the left
Calling code +880
Internet TLD .bd

Template:Contains special characters Bangladesh (/bæŋləˈdɛʃ/;[12] Template:Lang-bn, Template:IPA-bn), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It is the eighth-most populous country in the world, with a population exceeding 163 million people, in an area of 148,560 square kilometres (57,360 sq mi),[6] making it one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Bangladesh shares land borders with India to the west, north, and east, Myanmar to the southeast, and the Bay of Bengal to the south. It is narrowly separated from Nepal and Bhutan by the Siliguri Corridor, and from China by the Indian state of Sikkim in the north, respectively. Dhaka, the capital and largest city, is the nation's economic, political, and cultural hub. Chittagong, the largest seaport is the second-largest city.

Bangladesh forms the larger and eastern part of the Bengal region.[13] According to the ancient Indian texts, Rāmāyana and Mahābhārata, the Vanga Kingdom, one of the namesakes of the Bengal region, was a strong naval power. In the ancient and classical periods of the Indian subcontinent, the territory was home to many principalities, including the Pundra, Gangaridai, Gauda, Samatata, and Harikela. It was also a Mauryan province under the reign of Ashoka. The principalities were notable for their overseas trade, contacts with the Roman world, the export of fine muslin and silk to the Middle East, and spreading of philosophy and art to Southeast Asia. The Gupta Empire, Pala Empire, the Chandra dynasty, and the Sena dynasty were the last pre-Islamic Bengali middle kingdoms. Islam was introduced during the Pala Empire, through trade with the Abbāsid Caliphate,[14] but following the Ghurid conquests led by Bakhtiyār Khaljī, the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate and preaching of Shah Jalāl in the north-east, it spread across the entire region. In 1576, the wealthy Bengal Sultanate was absorbed into the Mughal Empire, but its rule was briefly interrupted by the Sūr Empire. Mughal Bengal, worth 12% of world GDP (late 17th century), waved the Proto-industrialization, showed signs of a possible industrial revolution,[15][16] established relations with the Dutch and English East India Company, and became also the basis of the Anglo-Mughal War. Following the death of Emperor Aurangzēb Ālamgir and Governor Shāista Khān in the early 1700s, the region became a semi-independent state under the Nawabs of Bengal. Sirāj ud-Daulah, the last Nawab of Bengal, was defeated by the British East India Company at the Battle of Plassey in 1757 and the whole region fell under Company rule by 1793.[17]

After the decline of the British Bengal Presidency, the borders of modern Bangladesh were established with the partition of Bengal in August 1947 at the time of partition of India, when the region became East Pakistan as a part of the newly formed Dominion of Pakistan.[18] Later the rise of a pro-democracy movement thrived on Bengali nationalism and self-determination, leading to the Liberation War and eventually resulted in the emergence of Bangladesh as a sovereign and independent nation in 1971.

The Bengalis make up 98% of the total population of Bangladesh.[4][5] The large Muslim population of Bangladesh makes it the third-largest Muslim-majority country.[19] The constitution declares Bangladesh a secular state, while establishing Islam as a state religion.[20] As a middle power in world politics,[21] Bangladesh is a unitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional republic following the Westminster system of governance. The country is divided into eight administrative divisions and 64 districts. Although the country continues to face the challenges of the Rohingya refugee crisis,[22] corruption,[23] and the adverse effects of climate change,[24] Bangladesh is one of the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, and is also one of the Next Eleven countries, having Asia's fastest real GDP growth rate.[25] The Bangladeshi economy is the 39th-largest in the world by nominal GDP, and the 29th-largest by PPP.
  1. "National Symbols→National march". Bangladesh: Ministry of Civil Aviation & Tourism. "In 13 January 1972, the ministry of Bangladesh has adopted this song as a national marching song on its first meeting after the country's independence." 
  2. "'Joy Bangla' to be national slogan: HC". Daily Prothom Alo. 10 March 2020. 
  3. "HC orders govt to announce 'Joy Bangla' as national slogan in three months". March 10, 2020. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Article 3. The state language". The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. Ministry of Law, The People's Republic of Bangladesh. Retrieved 1 February 2017. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Bānlādēśakē jānuna" (in bn). National Web Portal of Bangladesh.বাংলাদেশকে-জানুন. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 "South Asia :: Bangladesh — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency". 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Bangladesh Geography 2020, CIA World Factbook". 
  8. Data September 2011/ Archived September 4, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.. Census – Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2021".,&s=NGDP_RPCH,NGDPD,PPPGDP,NGDPDPC,PPPPC,&sy=2016&ey=2026&ssm=0&scsm=1&scc=0&ssd=1&ssc=0&sic=0&sort=country&ds=.&br=1. 
  10. "Gini Index". Knoema. 
  11. "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. 
  12. "English pronunciation of Bangladesh". Cambridge Dictionary. 
  13. Frank E. Eyetsemitan; James T. Gire (2003). Aging and Adult Development in the Developing World: Applying Western Theories and Concepts. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-89789-925-3. 
  14. Raj Kumar (2003). Essays on Ancient India. Discovery Publishing House. p. 199. ISBN 978-81-7141-682-0. 
  15. Indrajit Ray (2011). Bengal Industries and the British Industrial Revolution (1757-1857). Routledge. pp. 57, 90, 174. ISBN 978-1-136-82552-1. 
  16. Shombit Sengupta, Bengals plunder gifted the British Industrial Revolution, The Financial Express, 8 February 2010
  17. Esposito, John L., ed (2004). The Islamic World: Past and Present. Volume 1: Abba – Hist.. Oxford University Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-19-516520-3. Retrieved 29 August 2017. 
  18. Jacobs, Frank (6 January 2013). "Peacocks at Sunset". The New York Times. 
  19. "Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population". Pew Research Center. 7 October 2009. 
  20. The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. Ministry of Law, The People's Republic of Bangladesh. Retrieved 17 May 2019. "Article 2A. – The state religion and Article 12. – Secularism and freedom of religion" 
  21. Oosterveld, Willem; Torossian, Bianca. "A Balancing Act: The Role of Middle Powers in Contemporary Diplomacy". Strategic Monitor 2018–2019. Clingendael Institute. 
  22. Lisa Schlein (3 March 2020). "Rohingya Refugee Crisis Has Bangladesh, UN Calling for Help | Voice of America – English" (in en). VOA News. 
  23. Zafarullah, Habib; Siddiquee, Noore Alam (1 December 2001). "Dissecting Public Sector Corruption in Bangladesh: Issues and Problems of Control" (in en). Public Organization Review 1 (4): 465–486. doi:10.1023/A:1013740000213. ISSN 1566-7170. 
  24. Braun, David Maxwell (20 October 2010). "Bangladesh, India Most Threatened by Climate Change, Risk Study Finds". National Geographic. 
  25. "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2020". International Monetary Fund.