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{{#invoke:InfoboxImage|InfoboxImage|image=Louis Pasteur statue, San Rafael High School (crop).jpg|size=|sizedefault=frameless|upright=1.1|alt=}}
Benny Bufano's 1940 statue of Louis Pasteur in stainless steel and granite[1][2] at San Rafael High School, said to be the site of the original 4:20 gatherings in 1971
Observed by Cannabis counterculture, legal reformers, entheogenic spiritualists, and general users of cannabis
Type Secular
Significance Time/date to celebrate cannabis
Observances Cannabis consumption, traditionally cannabis smoking, dispensary discounts
Date 4:20 p.m.(16:20)/April 20
2023 date Template:Infobox holiday/date
2024 date Template:Infobox holiday/date
2025 date Template:Infobox holiday/date
2026 date Template:Infobox holiday/date
Frequency Daily, annually
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420, 4:20, or 4/20 (pronounced four-twenty) is cannabis culture slang for marijuana and hashish consumption, especially smoking around the time 4:20 p.m (16:20 UTC). It also refers to cannabis-oriented celebrations that take place annually on April 20 (4/20 in U.S. form).[3][4] At locations in the United States where cannabis is legal, cannabis dispensaries will often offer discounts on their products on April 20.[5]


In 1971, five high school students in San Rafael, California,[6][7] used the term "4:20" in connection with a plan to search for an abandoned cannabis crop, based on a treasure map made by the grower.[8][9] Calling themselves the Waldos,[10][11] because their typical hang-out spot "was a wall outside the school",[12] the five students—Steve Capper, Dave Reddix, Jeffrey Noel, Larry Schwartz, and Mark Gravich[13]—designated the Louis Pasteur statue[14] on the grounds of San Rafael High School as their meeting place, and 4:20 pm as their meeting time.[12] The Waldos referred to this plan with the phrase "4:20 Louis". After several failed attempts to find the crop, the group eventually shortened their phrase to "4:20", which ultimately evolved into a code-word the teens used to refer to consuming cannabis.[8]

Steven Hager of High Times popularized the story of the Waldos.[15] The first High Times mention of 4:20 smoking and a 4/20 holiday appeared in May 1991[16] and erroneously attributed the origin of the term to a police code; this and other spurious incorrect origin stories became common.[17] The connection to the Waldos appeared in December 1998. Hager attributed the early spread of the phrase to Grateful Dead followers[18]—after "Waldo" Reddix became a roadie for the Grateful Dead's bassist, Phil Lesh[13]—and called for 4:20 pm to be the socially accepted time of the day to consume cannabis.[18]

International day for cannabis-related protests and events

April 20 has become an international counterculture holiday, where people gather to celebrate and consume cannabis.[3][19][20] Many such events advocate for the liberalization and legalization of cannabis. Vivian McPeak, a founder of Seattle's Hempfest states that 4/20 is "half celebration and half call to action".[21] Paul Birch calls it a global movement and suggests that one cannot stop events like these.[22]

On that day many marijuana users protest in civil disobedience by gathering in public to smoke at 4:20 pm (16:20 universal time).[23]

As marijuana continues to be decriminalized and legalized around the world, Steve DeAngelo, cannabis activist and founder of California's Harborside Health Center, notes that "even if our activist work were complete, 420 morphs from a statement of conscience to a celebration of acceptance, a celebration of victory, a celebration of our amazing connection with this plant" and that he thinks that "it will always be worthy of celebration".[24][25]Template:Clear left

In North America

North American observances have been held at many locations, including:

In Australia

Australian observances have been held at many locations, over many years, including:


Events have also been held in Hyde Park in London[58] and Dunedin, New Zealand, at the University of Otago.[59][60][61][62][63][64]

In Ljubljana, Slovenia, the University of Ljubljana's student organization has carried out several annual cannabis-themed protests that have contributed to the debate on cannabis status in Slovenia and the subsequent legislation proposals in 2018 by gathering responses from various political parties in Slovenia and ranking them accordingly.[65][66]

In Northern Cyprus, known for strict drug laws and intolerance to cannabis consumption,[67] the first 420 event was held in the capital city Lefkoşa in 2015. On April 20, 2017, a small group of protesters carried out an event near the parliament building and made a public statement, demanding the legalization of cannabis sale, consumption, and production with state regulations.[68]

Other effects

Traffic safety

Despite two studies reporting a supposed increase in the risk of fatal motor vehicle crashes on April 20,[69][70] further investigation and analysis found the evidence did not support such claims.[71][72][73][74]

Stolen signs

In the US, signs bearing the number 420 have been frequently stolen. In Colorado, the Colorado Department of Transportation replaced the Mile Marker 420 sign on I-70 east of Denver with one reading 419.99 in an attempt to stop the thievery;[75] however, the folklore of the 419.99 sign has caused it to be stolen, too, as well as becoming a tourist destination. As of August 2018, the sign was missing, presumed stolen.[76] The Colorado DOT usually will not replace signs that are repeatedly taken, but began the practice of replacing further down the road after "69" mile marker signs were frequently stolen—these were replaced with "68.5 mile" ones.[77] The Idaho Department of Transportation (ITD) replaced the mile marker 420 sign on U.S. Highway 95, just south of Coeur d'Alene, with mile marker 419.9.[78] The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) implemented similar measures,[79] but only replaced one of the two 420 signs in the state, with the remaining one being subsequently stolen.[77] According to The Washington Post, there are eleven 420 mile markers in the US, after three replacements and one stolen and not replaced.[80] In Goodhue County, Minnesota, officials have changed "420 St" street signs to "42x St".[81] The mile marker 420 sign on U.S. Route 89, the only 420 marker in the state of Utah, is frequently stolen.[82]

This behaviour has not been observed in countries such as Australia, Template:Ill and the UK which also have roads numbered 420.

Legislation and other government recognition

In 2003, California Senate Bill 420 was introduced to regulate medical marijuana use, in deliberate reference[citation needed] to the status of 420 in marijuana culture. An unsuccessful 2010 bill to legalize cannabis in Guam was called Bill 420.[83] A North Dakota bill to legalize cannabis was HB 1420, introduced in January 2021.[84]

The Marijuana Freedom and Opportunity Act (which if enacted would decriminalize and deschedule cannabis in the United States) was announced by Senator and Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer (D-New York) on April 20, 2018.[85][86] On January 9, 2019, H.R. 420 was introduced into the 116th Congress by Representative Earl Blumenauer (D-Oregon), named the Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol Act, which is designed to remove cannabis from the Controlled Substances Act and return regulation to the states.[87]

The State of Colorado auctioned off several cannabis-themed personalized license plates in 2021, with the bidding to be closed on April 20 (4/20). The highest bid shortly before the auction closed was over $6,500 for "ISIT420".[88]

Following the success of Washington, D.C.'s Initiative 71 to legalize cannabis in 2014, Mayor Muriel Bowser granted license plate number 420 to the campaign's leader, Adam Eidinger.[89]


Several books about cannabis have "420" in the title, including the cannabis cookbooks The 420 Cannabis Cookbook, published by Simon & Schuster,[90] and The 420 Gourmet published in 2016 by HarperCollins.[91][92]

See also


  1. "Daily Independent Journal from San Rafael, California". November 20, 1954. https://www.newspapers.com/newspage/71688761/. 
  2. Chronicle, San Francisco (1962) (in en). The San Francisco Chronicle Reader. McGraw-Hill. https://archive.org/details/sanfranciscochro00sanf. Retrieved April 22, 2017. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 King, Matt (April 24, 2007). "Thousands at UCSC burn one to mark cannabis holiday". Santa Cruz Sentinel. http://www.santacruzsentinel.com/archive/2007/April/24/local/stories/08local.htm. 
  4. McCoy, Terrence (2014-04-18). "The strange story of how the pot holiday '4/20' got its name". The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2014/04/18/the-strange-story-of-how-the-pot-holiday-420-got-its-name/. 
  5. "4/20 deals: These Massachusetts cannabis dispensaries are celebrating with events, specials and more". April 17, 2021. https://www.masslive.com/cannabis/2021/04/420-deals-these-massachusetts-cannabis-dispensaries-are-celebrating-with-events-specials-and-more.html. 
  6. "Stoner Chic Traces Origin To San Rafael – Snickering high schoolers brought '420' into lexicon". San Francisco Chronicle. April 20, 2000. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2000/04/20/MN101165.DTL. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 McKinley, Jesse (April 19, 2009). "Marijuana Advocates Point to Signs of Change". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/20/us/20marijuana.html. "Mr. Hager said the significance of April 20 dates to a ritual begun in the early 1970s in which a group of Northern California teenagers smoked cannabis every day at 4:20 pm. Word of the ritual spread and expanded to a yearly event in various places. Soon, cannabis aficionados were using "420" as a code for smoking and using it as a sign-off on flyers for concerts where the drug would be plentiful. In recent years, the April 20 events have become so widespread that several colleges have discouraged students from participating." 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Grim, Ryan (April 20, 2010). "420 Meaning: The True Story Of How April 20 Became 'Weed Day'". The Huffington Post. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/04/20/420-meaning-the-true-stor_n_543854.html. 
  9. Alyssa Pereira (April 20, 2016). "Local originators of term 420 solve 45-year-old mystery". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/Bay-Area-originators-of-420-term-marijuana-7255771.php. 
  10. High Times (2012). The Official High Times Cannabis Cookbook: More Than 50 Irresistible Recipes That Will Get You High. Chronicle Books. pp. 97–. ISBN 978-1-4521-0133-0. https://books.google.com/books?id=W-vas6K75YYC&pg=PA97. Retrieved April 19, 2012. 
  11. "High Expectations: Marketers Hope for Buzz on 4/20". The Wall Street Journal. April 20, 2012. https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702303425504577354021179378292. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 Grim, Ryan (April 20, 2009). "What 420 Means: The True Story Behind Stoners' Favorite Number". The Huffington Post. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/04/20/what-420-means-the-true-s_n_188320.html. 
  13. 13.0 13.1
  14. Statue by Beniamino Bufano, "Louis Pasteur – 1940". New Deal Art Registry. https://newdealartregistry.org/artist/BufanoBeniamino/#. 
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  16. "Wake 'n' Bake!"
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  40. "Hundreds of Tokers Flood Alberta Legislature in Protest to Push for Legalization of Marijuana". April 21, 2013. http://www.edmontonsun.com/2013/04/20/hundreds-of-tokers-flood-alberta-legislature-in-protest-to-push-for-legalization-of-marijuana. 
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  87. Colorado to auction off cannabis-themed license plates, Associated Press, April 13, 2021, https://apnews.com/article/colorado-auction-marijuana-theme-license-plates-e2e2661f06b68efb877ef0820c807d54 
  88. "D.C. mayor offers pot activist Tag 420 for his efforts". Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/local/wp/2015/03/13/d-c-mayor-offers-special-420-license-plate-to-pot-activist/. 
  89. Maggie GRISWOLD (April 14, 2020). "The Best 4/20 Cookbooks for When You Have a Case of the Munchies". SHE Media. https://stylecaster.com/best-4-20-cookbooks/. 
  90. Naima Karp; Destynee Powell (November 8, 2018), Celebrate the High Holy Day With These Celebrated Marijuana Cookbooks, Penske Media, https://spy.com/articles/hacks/kitchen/420-friendly-cookbooks-cannabis-snoop-dogg-140841/ 
  91. Jonathan Segura (May 17, 2016), Cookbooks Previews: June 2016, Publishers Weekly, https://www.publishersweekly.com/pw/by-topic/industry-news/cooking/article/70403-cookbooks-previews-june-2016.html 

External links

  • 16x16px Media related to {{#invoke:Commons link|getCategory||linktext=|lcfirst=|nowrap=|italic=|tracking=1|qid=}} at Wikimedia Commons

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